NATURAL NUCLEAR REACTORS
February 2005

I) J Marvin Herndon's Theory of the "Georreactor"
i) The Standard Model Inside of the Earth.
The following is the standard model that explains the configuration of the Earth with the existence of the Magnetosphere:
- The external core is founded as fluid state
- The internal core corresponds to a solid sphere of iron and nickel partially crystalized
- The gravitatory pressure causes the core to emit heat


Standard Model inside of the Earth
Oklo Gabón Gabon

- The heat of the Core overheats the external core what generates convective movements around it
- The convective movements of the external core keep the Core rotating
- The rotation of the core ( = charge in movement) generates the Earth Magnetic Field autosustained.

ii) Phenomena that object the accuracy of the Standard Model
The Standard Model staggers when it is faced to certain phenomena that we could call "anomalous":
- Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus irradiate high quantities of heat generated inside. The traditional explanation says that this heat comes from the gravitatory colapse that originated each of these planets. However, these planets are gaseous, it means that their composition easily disipates the heat, that's why nowadays this phenomenon should not be observed
- The satellite Io in Jupiter shows volcanic activity. However, the gravity is not sufficient to provoke such a phenomenon
- It seems that millions of years the Moon and Mars had Magnetosphere. Why don't they actually have it? Also, there is evidence that seems to indicate that the inside of the Moon and Mars are not frozen. Where does the necessary energy to keep the inner heat of these heavenly bodies come from?
- It is believed that the primitive Earth was similar to the "chondrite". So, certain kinds od chondrites have uranius in their nucleus
- The lava and basalts in Hawaii and Iceland (coming from the center of the Earth) have an anormally rate of helium 3 / helium 4 (helium 3 is a subproduct of the nuclear reactions)

iii) The Theory of the Planetary "Georreactor"
With all this information the Geophysicist Marvin Herndon imagined the possibility that the original nucleus of many heavenly bodies correspond to a sphere of uranius. When the planets were liquid metallic masses, the elements that were heavier used to have a tendency to migrate because of the gravity to the center. And as the uranius is the heaviest natural element (r = 19 ton/m3) is obvious to conclude that the original nucleus of many planets should be from uranius. It is known that the uranius is unstable and it is desintegrated to become Pb. The heat freedby the radiactive desintegration of the nucleus is enough to provoke convective movements in the mantle. This is what the Nuclear Engineers know as "Regenerative reactor of rapid neutrons". The convective movements in the mantle cause the rotation of the nucleus electrically charged, that also sustains the magnetosphere of our planet.


Planetary "Georreactor" Model

In 2001, Marvin Herndon and Daniel Hollenbach presented a numeric simulation of the Earth Georreactor, getting the following conclusions:
- The Georreactor has been working during 4500 million years and has used the 75% out of the uranius available, reducing the radius from 12 Km to 8 Km.
- The products of the fision must be less heavier than the uranius, as a result they tend to migrate, as a foam outside of the nucleus
- The Georreactor generates 4 TW of heat and produces a rate of helium 3 / helium 4 similar to the one observed in the lava and basalts in Hawaii and Iceland
- As the helium 3 is a subproduct of the nuclear fision, the abundance of helium 3 should increase while the uranius of the nucleus is consummed
- The rhythm of the fision is not constant and coincides to the variable behaviours of the Earth Magnetic Field.

II) PK Kuroda's Theory (1956)
... Uranium is used as a fuel in the nuclear power plant (and in the massive destruction weapons). Because it is more unstable, the U 235 fissions more easily than U 238 when it interacts with slow neutrons. Then, the actual isotopic abundance of U 235 (0.72%) is used as commercial reference in the contracts or "enrichment" of uranium.
... According to the American Physicist PK Kuroda, in nature, natural processes of nuclear fission can happen in the case that certain special conditions happen:
- High concentration of Uranium
- High isotopic abundance of U 235 (700 million years before the was two times more U 235 that in the present)
- Presence of a "neutrons moderator". A neutrons moderator (as an aquiferous) corresponds to a substance able to make them slower capable to allow a nuclear chain reaction continue in time
- Absence of "odd soils" that make fission difficult
- Excess of deuterium and tritium

... As we go back in time we can observe an increase in the concentration of U 235. Therefore, the possibility that a spontaneous nuclear fission happens must increase while the event gets older.

III) The Fossil Nuclear Power Plant in Oklo
... In 1972 the French Scientist Bugzigues discovered nuclear fission waste, neodymium and samarium, in dispatching of uranium made by the minning company of Franceville. The purchasers though that it was a "swindle" because the concentration of U 235 in the mineral (0.3%) was too low, as if the mineral had been used as fuel in a nuclear power plant.
...Tracking the origin of the mineral, it was found that proceeded from the deposit of uranium of Oklo (Gabon). And effectively, the uranium had been used in the production of energy by fission... but 1800 million years ago.


Location of Gabon

...A staff of geologists, geophysicists and geochemists made several studies in Oklo. Quantized the concentration of neodymium in the deposit, they considered the Kuroda's theory and made geochronologic measures with the methods of rubidium-stroncium, potassium-argon and uranium-Pb. The conclusion of the studies were the following:
- 1800 million years ago, Oklo had the conditions stated by Kurode
- The uranium had mineralized in Oklo 1800 million years ago
- 1800 million years ago the composition of the mineral in Oklo was: 93% of U238, 3% of U235 and 4% of Pu 239
- The natural nuclear reactor in Oklo was working during 500 thousands years from the mineralization moment of the uranium, that consummed a total of 500 Kilogrames of uranium with a output potence of 100 KW.

End of the series

OK, but the conclusions show two strange things:
- Plutonium is a synthetic preparation. Isn't it?
- Why do the nuclear waste was found CONFINED in sepparated sections and not homogeneously distributed in the field?


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